The JSCOPE 2000 Logo




Moral Issues in Military Decision Making



JSCOPE 2000 attracted over 200 participants at the Hilton Springfield Hotel in Springfield, Virginia, on 27 and 28 January. Cadets and midshipman from all the US service academies attended this year, along with cadets from RMC in Canada.

General Charles Krulak (Ret) presented a stirring keynote address on the subject of integrity and emphasized the importance of the goals that JSCOPE and the millennium conference were pursuing. His question and answer period ranged over controversial issues, and most of the audience appeared impressed by his candid and straightforward responses to queries.

Brigadier General Malham M. Wakin (Ret), the founder of JSCOPE, presented the banquet address. He reemphasized the importance of the values component of military decision making and reminded the largest banquet audience in JSCOPE history of why his chairmanship of JSCOPE for many years resulted in a story of continuing success.



The program and papers presented appear elsewhere on the JSCOPE Web page. The authors are listed below for your convenience.

Dr. Jean Marie Arrigo, "An Approach to the Ethics of Weapons Research"

CPT David Barnes, USA, "Intervention and the Just War Tradition"

CPT Carlos Bertha, USANG, "Military Ethics for ROTC Cadets"

Mr. Peter Bowen, Sangreal Group, "Kosovo and the Aftermath"

LTC James Carafano, USA, "The Ethics of Operation Cobra and the Normandy Breakout"

Mr. Gordon Campbell, Combined Arms Support Command, "Contractors on the Battlefield: The Ethics of Paying Civilians to Enter Harmís Way and Requiring Soldiers to Depend on Them"

MAJ Michael Carlino, USA, "Ethical Education at the Unit Level"

LT John Carlson, USNR, "The Wrong Kind of Reluctance: What We Canít Learn from the Kosovo Campaign"

MAJ James Cook, USAF, "Subordinate (a)uthorities"

Dr. Manuel Davenport, Texas A&M University, "Moral Restrictions on the Conduct of War"

Dr. Robert Hickson, USAFA, "Reflections on the Genetics-Based Revolution in Military Affairs"

Dr. Pauline M. Kaurin, Pacific Lutheran University, "The Moral Drill Sergeant: On Teaching the ĎGruntsí to Do the Right Thing"

Dr, Davida Kellogg, University of Maine, "Just War Tradition vs. Public Opinion on American Military Involvement in FRY"

Dr. Robert Kennedy, University of St. Thomas, "Why Military Officers Must Have Training in Ethics"

CPT Peter Kilner, USA, "Military Leadersí Obligation to Justify Killing in War"

Dr. David Lutz, Hanover Institute of Philosophical Research, "The Ethics of American Military Policy n Africa"

Dr. Rudolph J. Marcus, Ethics Consultant (Office of Naval Research, Ret), "Sequenced Self-ĎStudy for Constellating a Moral Advisor"

MAJ Mark Mattox, USA, "The Moral Status of Military Deception"

MAJ John Nagl, USA, MAJ Charles Pfaff, USA, and Dr. Don Snider, USMA, "Army Professionalism, the Military Ethic, and Officership in the 21st Century"

MAJ Charles A. Pfaff, USA, "Just War Theory and MOOTW"

MAJ Guy Van Damme, Royal Military Academy, Belgium, "Rational Military Decision Making in Humanitarian Interventions in the 21st Century"

Dr. Fred Van Iersel, Tilburg University and Netherlands Defence College, "Moral Considerations in Military Decision Making"

MAJ Carl Rehberg, USAF, "Implications of Dereliction of Duty"

CDT Michael Starz, USMA, "The Non-toleration Clause: The Bedrock of the USMA Honor Code"

Chaplain (LTC) Herbert Strange, US Army Logistics Management College, "Itís a Dirty Job . . ."

Dr. Steven Tallant, LTC (Ret), USAF and Dr. Richard A. Ryberg, MAJ (Ret), USAF, "Social Work in the Military: Ethical Dilemmas and Training Implications"

MAJ Erhan Tanercan, RNLA, "Ethical Decision Making in the Military Decision Making Process"

MAJ Kari Thyne, USAF, "Just Cause as a Moral Determination"

Dr. James Toner, USAF AWC, and Christopher Toner, "Temperance & the Profession of Arms"

CPT Dan Wetmore, USAF, "The Moral Identify of the Modern Military: Relativism Reconsidered"

Dr. Michael Wheeler, Strategies Group, Science Applications International Corporation, "Special Advisors to Senior Military Commanders"

LTC Timothy Challans, USA, Cadet Rob Stanton, USMA, Cadet K. C. Evans, USMA, Cadet Scott Ross, USMA, and Cadet Nathan Diller, USAFA, conducted a panel discussion entitled "Models of Moral Decisions"



Through ballots distributed at the start of the conference, members elected new representatives to the Executive Board, as follows:

Lieutenant Colonel William Rhodes, USAF, Air Force Academy, was elected as the Air Force representative. Colonel Charles Myers, our Air Force representative for many years and long-time program chairman, has retired from active duty.

Lieutenant Colonel William Stooksbury, USMC, Naval Academy, was elected to succeed LTC Steve Fenstermacher.

Commander Joseph Catoe, USN, Naval Academy, was reelected as the Navy representative.

Commander Rob Ayer, USCG, Coast Guard Academy, was reelected as the Coast Guard representative.

Dr. Frances V. Harbour, George Mason University, was reelected as the civilian representative.

The members of the JSCOPE Executive Board for 2000-2001 thus are as follows:

Colonel Tony Hartle, USA Representative and Chairman

Department of English

United States Military Academy

West Point, NY 10996-1791

Lieutenant Colonel Bill Rhodes, USAF Representative


2354 Fairchild Drive, Suite 6l37

USAF Academy, CO 80840-6256

Dr. Fran Harbour, Civilian Representative

Dept. of Public/Intíl Affairs

George Mason University

4400 University Drive

Fairfax, VA 22030

Commander Rob Ayer, USCG Representative

Department of Humanities (DH)

US Coast Guard Academy

New London, CT 06320

Commander Joe Catoe, USN Representative

History Department

United States Naval Academy

117 Decatur Road

Annapolis, Maryland 21402

Colonel Paul Maillet, Canadian Forces Representative

Director of Defence Ethics,


MGen Pearkes Bldg

101 Colonel By drive

Ottawa Ontario Canada K1A OK2

Lieutenant Colonel Bill Stooksbury, USMC Representative

Ethics Center

United States Naval Academy

Annapolis, Maryland 21402


The dates for JSCOPE 2001 remain tentative until a location is established, but they will most probably be near the end of January. The site for the conference will be in the Washington, DC area, either at a hotel or the US Naval Academy. "Current Ethical Issues Affecting the Military Profession" will continue as a perennial theme, suitable for papers, but the special topic for next year will be:

The Domestic Role of the Military

The Call for Papers for JSCOPE 2001 will include details about the topic and paper submission requirements.



We owe a special thanks once again to the Canadian Forces, who generously supported the conference with a financial contribution that allowed us to leave the red ink on the shelf. On behalf of all members, I express our sincere gratitude. The papers presented this year were particularly impressive. We thank the authors for the high quality of their work and their willingness to share their ideas with JSCOPE members and all those who access the web site ( We also owe special thanks to the Department of Philosophy, USAFA, which maintains the internet web page that has been so useful, and we certainly should commend the work of COL Charles Myers, who organized and coordinated the program for JSCOPE 2000. We wish him the very best in his retirement in Florida.

I hope to see you all in 2001!